MALARIA BILIOSA PDF

See also: Genetic resistance to malaria and Plasmodium species infecting primates The mosquito and the fly in this Baltic amber necklace are between 40 and 60 million years old. The first evidence of malaria parasites was found in mosquitoes preserved in amber from the Palaeogene period that are approximately 30 million years old. Malaria protozoa are diversified into primate, rodent, bird, and reptile host lineages. Consequences included natural selection for sickle-cell disease , thalassaemias , glucosephosphate dehydrogenase deficiency , Southeast Asian ovalocytosis , elliptocytosis and loss of the Gerbich antigen glycophorin C and the Duffy antigen on the erythrocytes , because such blood disorders confer a selective advantage against malaria infection balancing selection.

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This is to make sure they do not get sicker. It also makes sure they can take the medicines by mouth. Malaria does not start to become a life-threatening disease until it has been a couple of weeks after the bite without being treated. Falciparum malaria also has more resistance to medicines. This makes it much harder to treat. Falciparum malaria is always treated with two or more medicines. Doctors choose the medicines by where in the world the person got malaria.

Different places have P. The most important resistance is chloroquine-resistance. In some places in the world, P. In some places it is chloroquine-resistant. This means chloroquine does not kill it. In these places quinine can be used. Quinine is taken by mouth. How to prevent malaria[ change change source ] Sleeping under insecticide-treated bed nets ITNs helps reduce the risk of getting malaria. Only pyrethroid insecticides are approved for use on ITNs.

These are man-made pesticides similar to the natural pesticide pyrethrum, made by chrysanthemum flowers There are three ways to prevent malaria: Control mosquitoes Keep mosquitoes from biting Take medicine to keep from getting sick after a bite, especially in those parts of the world where people get malaria.

Clearing drainage ditches in Kenya Anopheles larvaeThe anopheles mosquito lays eggs in stagnant water Vector control is one way to stop malaria. Vector means an organism that carries an infectious disease to another organism. For malaria, the vector is the Anopheles mosquito. The most used method of vector control is pesticides. These are chemicals that kill the mosquito.

The first pesticide used for vector control was DDT. DDT worked very well for vector control. It killed mosquitoes. It did not make people very sick at the time it was used.

It did not cost very much money. Other chemicals for vector control had not been invented yet. In many places mosquitoes became resistant to DDT. This meant that DDT did not work anymore in these areas. Scientists worried that DDT was making people and animals sick. It killed a lot of wildlife too.

DDT also stays in the environment for a long time. For these reasons, people mostly use other chemicals for vector control. Organophosphate or carbonate pesticides are used, like malathion or bendiocarb. Vector control is not the only way to stop malaria. And DDT is not the only chemical that can be used for vector control. The best way to stop malaria is to use a combination of methods.

In some places, DDT may be a useful part of a program to stop malaria. This is why DDT is still allowed to be used for controlling malaria. Keeping mosquitoes from biting[ change change source ] The mosquito that carries malaria comes more at dawn when the sun comes up and dusk when the sun goes down. Be most careful at these times. Wear long trousers and shirts with long sleeves. Wear mosquito repellent this is a chemical that mosquitoes do not like, so they do not bite.

Mosquitoes will bite through thin cloth. So repellent should be used on skin and clothes. Pesticides can be used in rooms to kill mosquitoes. When sleeping outside, people use a mosquito net.

This is made from cloth that air can go through but keeps mosquitoes out. It is put over a bed where people sleep to keep mosquitoes out. Sometimes people also use it when they are not sleeping. It is best to use mosquito nets that have been treated with Permethrin, which repels and kills mosquitoes. Taking medicine to not get sick[ change change source ] People can take medicine when they are in a place where there is malaria. This reduces the chances that they contract malaria.

This is called prophylaxis. Some people take prophylactic medicines for years. Many people in areas where there is malaria do not have the money to buy this medicine. People who live where there is no malaria usually have not had malaria. The first case malaria is usually much worse. So people from places where there is no malaria may take prophylactic medicines when they go to places where there is malaria. The kind of prophylactic medicines people take depends on where they are.

This is because not all medicines work on the malaria in every place. To make them work best, prophylactic medicines have to be taken the right way. The medicine should start before going to an area with malaria. Most medicines should be taken for 4 weeks after coming home. One medicine Malarone only needs to be used for one week after coming home. Resistance to malaria[ change change source ] There are some children in Tanzania who are naturally immune to malaria.

Researchers are using this to develop a new vaccine. Injecting a form of this antibody into mice protected the animals from the disease.

The researchers plan to do tests on primates , including humans. He isolated malaria parasites from the salivary glands of mosquitoes that had fed on infected birds. Its recommendations were used during construction of the Panama Canal. This public-health work saved the lives of thousands of workers and helped develop the methods used in future public-health campaigns against the disease. The first effective treatment for malaria came from the bark of cinchona tree , which contains quinine.

This tree grows on the slopes of the Andes , mainly in Peru. The indigenous peoples of Peru made a tincture of cinchona to control malaria. The Jesuits noted the efficacy of the practice and introduced the treatment to Europe during the s, where it was rapidly accepted.

The resulting fever would kill the syphilis spirochaetes , and quinine could be administered to control the malaria. Although some patients died from malaria, this was preferable to the almost-certain death from syphilis.

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Malaria Diagnosis & Treatment in the United States

This is to make sure they do not get sicker. It also makes sure they can take the medicines by mouth. Malaria does not start to become a life-threatening disease until it has been a couple of weeks after the bite without being treated. Falciparum malaria also has more resistance to medicines. This makes it much harder to treat. Falciparum malaria is always treated with two or more medicines. Doctors choose the medicines by where in the world the person got malaria.

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History of malaria

Diagnosis Rapid and accurate diagnosis of malaria is integral to the appropriate treatment of affected individuals and in preventing the further spread of infection in the community. As a national reference center for malaria diagnosis, CDC provides diagnostic and technical assistance on malaria diagnosis. CDC provides reference microscopic diagnosis and other specialized tests such as serology, PCR, and drug-resistance testing. More on: Malaria Diagnosis in the United States Treatment Treatment of malaria depends on many factors including disease severity, the species of malaria parasite causing the infection, and the part of the world in which the infection was acquired. The latter two characteristics help determine the probability that the organism is resistant to certain antimalarial drugs. Additional factors such as age, weight, and pregnancy status may limit the available options for malaria treatment.

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