Origen y objeto del continente. Latinos y sajones. Tenemos entonces las cuatro etapas y los cuatro troncos: el negro, el indio, el mongol y el blanco. El predominio latino fue indiscutible en los comienzos. Crisis de una lucha secular que se inicia con el desastre de la Armada Invencible y se agrava con la derrota de Trafalgar.
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The family moved to the border town of Piedras Negras, Coahuila , where he grew up attending school in Eagle Pass, Texas. The family also lived in Campeche during a period when the northern border area was unstable. His time in living on the Texas border likely contributed to fostering his idea of the Mexican "cosmic race" and rejection of Anglo culture. He also had a long-term relationship with Elena Arizmendi Mejia and through life, many other shorter liaisons, including one with Berta Singerman.
When his wife of forty years died in , their daughter Carmen is reported saying "When the coffin was lowered into the ground, Vasconcelos sobbed bitterly. At that moment he must have known and felt who he really had as a wife; perhaps they were tears of belated repentance. In law school, he became involved with radical students organized as the Ateneo de la Juventud Youth Atheneum.
Some other members included Isidro Fabela and Diego Rivera. Madero , the presidential candidate of the Anti-Re-electionista Party. After Huerta was ousted in July , Vasconcelos returned to Mexico. The Convention of Aguascalientes in , the failed attempt of the factions that defeated the Huerta regime to find a political solution, but which split the factions. Venustiano Carranza became president of Mexico — , but was ousted and killed by the Sonoran generals that had helped put him in power.
Rector of the National University[ edit ] Logo of the National University of Mexico designed by Vasconcelos when he was rector Vasconcelos returned to Mexico during the interim presidency of Sonoran Adolfo de la Huerta was named rector the National Autonomous University of Mexico   As rector, he had a great deal of power, but he accrued even more by ignoring the standard structures, such as the University Council, to govern the institution.
Vasconcelos is said to have declared "I have not come to govern the University but to ask the University to work for the people. Vasconcelos traveled through Mexico while he was rector of the university seeking that support.
The effort succeeded and Vasconcelos was named head of the new cabinet level secretariat in July He ran for president in but lost to Pascual Ortiz Rubio in a controversial election and again left the country. Then he wrote, in , a long essay on Pythagorism , as a dissertation on the links between harmony and rhythm , and its eventual explanation into a frame of aesthetic monism.
As he argued that only by the means of rhythm is the human being able to know the world without any intermediation, he proposed that the minimal aspects of cognition are conditioned by a degree of sympathy with the natural "vibration" of things.
In this manner, he thought that the auditive categories of knowledge were much higher than the visual ones. During a later period, Vasconcelos developed an argument for the mixing of races, as a natural and desirable direction for humankind. In the final part of his life, he gradually fell into a deeply Catholic political conservatism. Before the Second World War, he began writing sympathetically about Franco, and he retracted some of his earlier liberal positions.
Vasconcelos is often referred to as the father of the "indigenismo" philosophy. In recent times, this philosophy has come under criticism from Native Americans because of its negative implications concerning indigenous peoples. To an extent, his philosophy argued for a new, "modern" mestizo people, but at the cost of cultural assimilation of all ethnic groups. His research on the nature of Mexican modern identity had a direct influence on the young writers, poets, anthropologists and philosophers who wrote on this subject.
He also influenced the point of view of Carlos Pellicer with respect to several aesthetic assumptions reflected in his books. Together, Pellicer and Vasconcelos made a trip through the Middle East —29 , looking for the "spiritual basis" of Byzantine architecture. Paz wrote that Vasconcelos was "the teacher" who had educated hundreds of young Latin American intellectuals during his many trips to Central and South America. Vasconcelos was guest lecturer at Columbia University and Princeton University , but his influence on new generations in the United States became gradually less significant.
Contributions to the arts and education[ edit ] Thanks to Vasconcelos, the National Symphonic Orchestra and the Symphonic Orchestra of Mexico were officially endorsed. In an instant of historical crisis, they formulated the transcendental mission assigned to that region of the Globe: the mission of fusing the peoples ethnically and spiritually.
The Hebrews founded the belief in their superiority on oracles and divine promises. The English found theirs on observations relative to domestic animals. From the observation of cross-breeding and hereditary varieties in such animals, Darwinism emerged. First, as a modest zoological theory, then as social biology that confers definitive preponderance to the English above all races.
Every imperialism needs a justifying philosophy". Power does not come to Hitler from the military base, but from the book that inspires the troops from the top.
Hitler represents, ultimately, an idea, the German idea, so often humiliated previously by French militarism and English perfidy. But they are democracies in name only".
III. La raza cósmica