Vietnam: sao den. Origin and geographic distribution Hopea consists of some species. The section Dryobalanoides Miq. Burck, to which most of the merawan timbers belong, comprises about half of the total number of species and is distributed from mainland South East Asia towards Peninsular Malaysia, Sumatra, Borneo, the Philippines and New Guinea. The oldest fossil wood belonging to the genus Hopea was found on the east coast of southern India and dates from the Miocene. Within South East Asia several species especially H.
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Hopea odorata Roxb. Synonyms Hopea decandra Buch. Diagnostics A large tree reaching up to 45 m in height with the base of the trunk reaching a diameter of 4.
Stipules present but minute and dropped early. Leaves alternate, with clear secondary venation and conspicuous domatia along the midrib on leaf lower surface.
With small yellow-white flowers, with spiraly overlapping petals. Fruits with two long wings ca. Nut ca. Description Tall buttressed tree with dark brown flaky bark. Twig apices sparsely fugaceous pale buff puberulent; panicle, leaf buds, flower calyx and petals outside densely persistently so; fruit calyx lobes and frequently nut glabrescent. Twig c. Buds minute, ovoid; stipules minute, fugaceous. Leaves by cm. Panicle to 12 cm long, terminal or axillary, twice-branched, with many to 2.
Flower buds to 3 by 2 mm, broadly ovoid. Outer 2 sepals lanceolate, obtuse or subacuminate; inner 3 broadly ovate, acute. Petals pale cream-yellow. Stamens 15; filaments slender, compressed at base, tapering; appendage slender, as long as narrowly ellipsoid anthers.
Ovary ovoid, punctate or glabrous, surmounted by an equally tall columnar style. Fruit pedicel to 1 mm long, short, slender, 2 longer calyx lobes to 5. Nut to 6 by 5 mm, small, ovoid, subobtuse. Uses Timber is used. Also cultivated as a shade tree. In Thailand this tree is believed to be inhabited by a certain tree spirit known as Lady Ta-khian.
Durable timber used for shipbuilding and houses. Bark is rich in tannins and used to treat diarrhoea, and sometimes used to replace betel nut in betel quid. It is one ingredient of a remedy for the treatment of inflammation of the gums and incontinence. Resin of the trunk is a popular styptic and is used as an ointment for wounds and sores.
On open sites, it is more typically 25 to 30 m 82 to 98 ft tall with gently ascending branches forming a pyramidal crown, becoming more rounded as the tree ages. The bark is light- to dark-brown and roughened by vertical fissures and ridges. They remain on the tree in all seasons. Flowers white, small and held in branched clusters arising at the sides and ends of the branches. They bloom only every second spring and are followed by small egg-shaped nuts around 1 cm 0. The nut and wings are green when young, becoming brown when mature, then detach to fall and glide on the wind. It is lightweight to heavy, in the to kg per cubic meter 31 to 59 lbs per cubic ft range, and has variable natural resistance to rot and decay, ranging from non-resistant to very resistant.