Footnotes have been omitted. The falling of snow, the fluttering of birds, and the rising of the sun can be painted musically only, by producing auditory impressions which are dynamically related to those phenomena. In point of strength, pitch, velocity, and rhythm, sounds present to the ear a figure, bearing that degree of analogy to certain visual impressions which sensations of various kinds bear to one another. As there is, physiologically speaking, such a thing as a vicarious function up to a certain point , so may sense-impressions, aesthetically speaking, become vicarious also. Although, as far as we remember, all musical theorists tacitly accept, and base their arguments on the postulate, that music has the power of representing definite emotions — yet, their better judgement has kept them from openly avowing it. Rationally understood, this can only mean that music ought to deal with the motion accompanying a feeling, regardless of its essential part, with what is felt; in other words, that its function is restricted to the reproduction of what we termed the dynamic element of an emotion, a function which we unhesitatingly conceded to music.

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As much as possible, the outline uses the vocabulary of the Payzant translation. Square brackets [like this] offer my own interpretive comments. This outline was written by Theodore Gracyk. He seems to think that the pursuit of objective criticism is already underway with literature and the visual arts. But the Romanticism of the nineteenth century looked instead to human expression of emotion. Many important composers found themselves dragged into this debate.

Does it have anything to do with feeling [emotion]? Prevailing views of music assign two distinct roles to feeling in relation to music.

The defining purpose of music is assigned to its capacity to arouse feeling. Feeling is the content of music, that which musical art presents in its works. The point is to make a distinction between the physical thing we hear, the series of sounds, and the music. Since we allow that we hear the same music on different occasions when there is a different physical object, we do not want to equate the musical with any physical object. There are several theories about the best way to make the distinction between physical object and music Today we are more likely to say that the musical work is an intentional object.

The objection fails if we think that music has multiple purposes, the way the food has both a nutritional and an aesthetic purpose. But two arts might differ in the medium employed while having a common principle of beauty and a common purpose. There is no constancy about the idea that we live on a planet that orbits the sun; I certainly experience the earth as stationary and flat, which just goes to show that appearances can be deceiving. Chapter II — Feeling is not the content p.

But if the same music can combine with different texts to convey distinct emotions, then the music does not by itself convey a specific emotion. In other words, an ideal implies that there are degrees of success and failure, and if communicating emotion is the ideal for music, the best emotional communication must coincide with the best music. What music conveys in combination with text greatest specificity?

Recitative and other "dramatic" text which is normally combined with the weakest music. Success in combining words and music involves "constant tension" p. Each musical event involves composition plus reproduction [performance] and the latter is the vehicle for personal expression. The Listener This section of the chapter is dominated by a discussion of music therapy and the common but mistaken assumption that sound acts directly on the listener without intervention of the imagination.

Both are doubtful composers are unable to produce specific emotions "on demand".


Eduard Hanslick: can music represent anything?

Secondary Sources 1. After a short-lived employment as a fiscal civil servant in Klagenfurt Carinthia in —52, during which Hanslick prepared for an academic profession Wilfing , 91n , he returned to Vienna to work at the ministry of finances and was subsequently transferred to the ministry of education in The initial traces of the book he would become famous for also fall within this time frame, with OMB completed in In , this book was acknowledged retroactively as a philosophical habilitation, thereby granting Hanslick an unsalaried professorship at the University of Vienna that turned into a salaried position in , and ultimately a full post in



JoJocage Music, Language, and Cognition: The beauty of rhe independent and simple theme appeals to our aesthetic feeling with that directness, which tolerates no explanation, except, perhaps, that of its inherent fitness and the harmony of parts, to the exclusion of any alien factor. While his aesthetics and his criticism are typically considered separately, they are importantly connected. Sign in Create an account. By ending his list of theorists with Wagner, he makes his primary critical target obvious; Wagner had recently published his own essay, Opera and Dramainin which he demonstrates how his compositional technique expresses the feelings inherent in the content and form of poetry.

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