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A mass, according to Freud, is a "temporary entity, consisting of heterogeneous elements that have joined together for a moment. Like Le Bon, Freud says that as part of the mass, the individual acquires a sense of infinite power which allows him to act on impulses that he would otherwise have to curb as an isolated individual. These feelings of power and security allow the individual not only to act as part of the mass, but also to feel safety in numbers.
This is accompanied, however, by a loss of conscious personality and a tendency of the individual to be infected by any emotion within the mass, and to amplify the emotion, in turn, by " mutual induction ".
Overall, the mass is "impulsive, changeable, and irritable. It is controlled almost exclusively by the unconscious. One is the short-lived kind, characterized by a rapidly transient interest, such as trends. The other kind consists of more permanent and enduring masses, which are highly organized, such as the Church or the military. Freud refers back to his theory of instincts and believes that masses are held together by libidinal bonds.
Each individual in the mass acts on impulses of love that are diverted from their original objectives. They pursue no direct sexual goal, but "do not therefore work less vigorously". The ego perceives a significant similarity with others in the group and identifies with them. In addition, admiration and idealization of the leader of the group takes place through the process of idealization.
The narcissistic libido is displaced to the object which is "loved because of its perfection which the individual has sought for his own ego". Thus, Freud came to the conclusion: "A primary mass is a number of individuals who have put one and the same object in place of their ego ideal and consequently identify with each other.
Massenpsychologie und Ich-Analyse
Massenpsychologie Und Ich-Analyse