In patients with renal disease, thiazides may precipitate azotemia. Cumulative effects of the drug may develop in patients with impaired renal function. Thiazides should be used with caution in patients with impaired hepatic function or progressive liver disease, since minor alterations of fluid and electrolyte balance may precipitate hepatic coma. Thiazides may add to or potentiate the action of other antihypertensive drugs. Sensitivity reactions may occur in patients with or without a history of allergy or bronchial asthma.
|Published (Last):||27 April 2006|
|PDF File Size:||19.36 Mb|
|ePub File Size:||9.68 Mb|
|Price:||Free* [*Free Regsitration Required]|
In patients with renal disease, thiazides may precipitate azotemia. Cumulative effects of the drug may develop in patients with impaired renal function. Thiazides should be used with caution in patients with impaired hepatic function or progressive liver disease, since minor alterations of fluid and electrolyte balance may precipitate hepatic coma. Thiazides may add to or potentiate the action of other antihypertensive drugs.
Sensitivity reactions may occur in patients with or without a history of allergy or bronchial asthma. The possibility of exacerbation or activation of systemic lupus erythematosus has been reported. Serum and urine electrolyte determinations are particularly important when the patient is vomiting excessively or receiving parenteral fluids.
Warning signs or symptoms of fluid and electrolyte imbalance, irrespective of cause, include dryness of mouth, thirst, weakness, lethargy, drowsiness, restlessness, confusion, seizures, muscle pains or cramps, muscular fatigue, hypotension, oliguria, tachycardia, and gastrointestinal disturbances such as nausea and vomiting. Hypokalemia may develop, especially with brisk diuresis, when severe cirrhosis is present or after prolonged therapy.
Interference with adequate oral electrolyte intake will also contribute to hypokalemia. Hypokalemia may cause cardiac arrhythmias and may also sensitize or exaggerate the response of the heart to the toxic effects of digitalis e.
Hypokalemia may be avoided or treated by use of potassium-sparing diuretics or potassium supplements such as foods with a high potassium content. Although any chloride deficit is generally mild and usually does not require specific treatment except under extraordinary circumstances as in liver disease or renal disease , chloride replacement may be required in the treatment of metabolic alkalosis.
Dilutional hyponatremia may occur in edematous patients in hot weather; appropriate therapy is water restriction, rather than administration of salt, except in rare instances when the hyponatremia is life-threatening.
In actual salt depletion, appropriate replacement is the therapy of choice. Hyperuricemia may occur or acute gout may be precipitated in certain patients receiving thiazides. In diabetic patients dosage adjustments of insulin or oral hypoglycemic agents may be required. Hyperglycemia may occur with thiazide diuretics. Thus latent diabetes mellitus may become manifest during thiazide therapy.
The antihypertensive effects of the drug may be enhanced in the post-sympathectomy patient. If progressive renal impairment becomes evident, consider withholding or discontinuing diuretic therapy. Thiazides have been shown to increase the urinary excretion of magnesium; this may result in hypomagnesemia. Thiazides may decrease urinary calcium excretion. Thiazides may cause intermittent and slight elevation of serum calcium in the absence of known disorders of calcium metabolism.
Marked hypercalcemia may be evidence of hidden hyperparathyroidism. Thiazides should be discontinued before carrying out tests for parathyroid function. Increases in cholesterol and triglyceride levels may be associated with thiazide diuretic therapy. Laboratory Tests Periodic determination of serum electrolytes to detect possible electrolyte imbalance should be done at appropriate intervals. Drug Interactions When given concurrently the following drugs may interact with thiazide diuretics.
Pressor Amines e. Skeletal Muscle Relaxants, Nondepolarizing e. Lithium - generally should not be given with diuretics. Diuretic agents reduce the renal clearance of lithium and add a high risk of lithium toxicity. Therefore, when DIURIL and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agents or selective COX-2 inhibitors are used concomitantly, the patient should be observed closely to determine if the desired effect of the diuretic is obtained.
In some patients with compromised renal function e. These effects are usually reversible. Therefore, the combination should be administered with caution, especially in the elderly. Carcinogenesis, Mutagenesis, Impairment of Fertility Carcinogenicity studies have not been conducted with chlorothiazide.
These doses are 1. It is not known whether chlorothiazide can cause fetal harm when administered to a pregnant woman; however, thiazides cross the placental barrier and appear in cord blood.
Nonteratogenic Effects: Chlorothiazide may cause fetal or neonatal jaundice, thrombocytopenia, and possibly other adverse reactions which have occurred in the adult. Nursing Mothers Because of the potential for serious adverse reactions in nursing infants from DIURIL, a decision should be made whether to discontinue nursing or to discontinue the drug, taking into account the importance of the drug to the mother. Pediatric Use There are no well-controlled clinical trials in pediatric patients.
Information on dosing in this age group is supported by evidence from empiric use in pediatric patients and published literature regarding the treatment of hypertension in such patients. Geriatric Use Clinical studies of DIURIL did not include sufficient numbers of subjects aged 65 and over to determine whether they respond differently from younger subjects.
Other reported clinical experience has not identified differences in responses between the elderly and younger patients. In general, dose selection for an elderly patient should be cautious, usually starting at the low end of the dosing range, reflecting the greater frequency of decreased hepatic, renal, or cardiac function, and of concomitant disease or other drug therapy. This drug is known to be substantially excreted by the kidney, and the risk of toxic reactions to this drug may be greater in patients with impaired renal function.
Because elderly patients are more likely to have decreased renal function, care should be taken in dose selection, and it may be useful to monitor renal function see WARNINGS. The following adverse reactions have been reported and, within each category, are listed in order of decreasing severity.
Body as a Whole: Weakness. Cardiovascular: Hypotension, including orthostatic hypotension may be aggravated by alcohol, barbiturates, narcotics or antihypertensive drugs.
Digestive: Pancreatitis, jaundice intrahepatic cholestatic jaundice , diarrhea, vomiting, sialadenitis, cramping, constipation, gastric irritation, nausea, anorexia. Hematologic: Aplastic anemia, agranulocytosis, leukopenia, hemolytic anemia, thrombocytopenia. Hypersensitivity: Anaphylactic reactions, necrotizing angiitis vasculitis and cutaneous vasculitis , respiratory distress including pneumonitis and pulmonary edema, photosensitivity, fever, urticaria, rash, purpura.
Musculoskeletal: Muscle spasm. Skin: Erythema multiforme including Stevens-Johnson syndrome, exfoliative dermatitis including toxic epidermal necrolysis, alopecia. Special Senses: Transient blurred vision, xanthopsia.
Urogenital: Impotence. Whenever adverse reactions are moderate or severe, thiazide dosage should be reduced or therapy withdrawn.
OVERDOSAGE The most common signs and symptoms observed are those caused by electrolyte depletion hypokalemia, hypochloremia, hyponatremia and dehydration resulting from excessive diuresis.
If digitalis has also been administered, hypokalemia may accentuate cardiac arrhythmias. In the event of overdosage, symptomatic and supportive measures should be employed. Emesis should be induced or gastric lavage performed. Correct dehydration, electrolyte imbalance, hepatic coma and hypotension by established procedures. If required, give oxygen or artificial respiration for respiratory impairment. The degree to which chlorothiazide sodium is removed by hemodialysis has not been established.
Therapy should be individualized according to patient response. Use the smallest dosage necessary to achieve the required response. Many patients with edema respond to intermittent therapy, i. With an intermittent schedule, excessive response and the resulting undesirable electrolyte imbalance are less likely to occur.
Dosage is increased or decreased according to blood pressure response.
Thanks for visiting!
It is 6-chloro-2H-1,2,4-benzothiadiazinesulfonamide 1,1-dioxide monosodium salt and its molecular weight is It is 6-chloro-2H-1,2,4-benzothiadiazinesulfonamide 1,1-dioxide. Its empirical formula is C7H6ClN3O4S2 and its structural formula is: It is a white, or practically white, crystalline powder with a molecular weight of It is soluble in urine to the extent of about mg per mL at pH 7.