Freeman, UDC September mit Bildreihen 2 comma has been used throughout as the decimal marker. This standard describes the examination of special steels for non-metallic inclusions of sulfidic and oxidic nature. Both macroscopic and microscopic methods are used for this purpose. Microscopic examination can be carried out using metallurgical microscope and auto: matic devices.
|Published (Last):||24 March 2009|
|PDF File Size:||12.94 Mb|
|ePub File Size:||4.43 Mb|
|Price:||Free* [*Free Regsitration Required]|
How are International Standards developed? National standardization begins with a proposal for standards work that anyone can submit to DIN. Once a proposal has been received, the responsible DIN committee discusses with the relevant experts the need for a standard on that subject, if they are willing to finance the project, and whether the work is to be carried out at national, European or international level. If a decision has been made to develop a national standard, and the responsible steering body has approved this, then a draft standard is developed, which is published by Beuth Verlag.
All comments received are discussed by experts in the standards committee, who come to consensus on the content of the standard.
The finished standard is then published and sold by Beuth Verlag. This standpoint is developed in national committees that "mirror" the European committees. This way, stakeholders can work together in their own native language - a definite advantage.
It is often decisive for national interests to be effectively represented at an early stage of the development of a European Standard. At least a simple majority and 71 percent of the weighted majority among all national standards bodies voting are needed for the proposal to be accepted. In addition, a sufficient number of national standards bodies must agree to participate, after having checked with their stakeholders that there is sufficient need - and sufficient financing - for carrying out the necessary work in the national mirror committees.
Only then will the proposal be accepted and work on the standard can begin. If there is an existing International Standard on the subject, it will be adopted, unchanged, as the European Standard.
If this is not the case, the responsible working body will draw up a manuscript for the draft standard prEN. Draft standard The draft standard is distributed to the national standards organizations for commenting in what is called the "public enquiry" stage.
National comments are to be submitted within three months. The national mirror committee discusses all comments received and submits the consolidated national standpoint. Final draft optional and publication On the basis of the comments received, the responsible working group can either decide to publish the standard or to draw up and issue a final draft.
In a formal vote over a two month period, the members then decide whether to accept this final draft as a European Standard. There is no public enquiry for the final draft. Approval of the final draft requires at least 71 percent of the weighted votes of CEN members.
Adoption as a national standard Ratification of a European Standard takes place following positive voting. After ratification, the European Standard must be adopted, unchanged, as a national standard, and any conflicting national standards withdrawn. In addition, a standard that has been developed at international level can be simultaneously adopted as a European Standard by means of parallel voting procedures in accordance with the Vienna Agreement.
Such standards are also to be automatically adopted by the national standards organizations. International Standards are developed by ISO or IEC, for electrotechnical standards according to the national delegation principle, with each country sending a delegation of experts to represent the national standpoint.
This standpoint is developed in national committees that "mirror" the international committees. The mirror committees also decide whether or not an International Standard should be adopted as a national standard - this is voluntary, in contrast to the European Standards, which must be adopted nationally.
Proposal stage As at national level, international standards work begins with a "new work item proposal". A simple majority of national standards organizations with an interest in the subject matter is required for the proposal to be approved. In addition, a sufficient number of these must also agree to participate in the work. Within two months a "committee draft" is circulated among the members of the responsible Technical Committee for voting.
A draft is drawn up taking any comments received into consideration. Draft standard The draft standard is then made available to all ISO or IEC members, who have three months to submit their national position and comments. The national mirror committee discusses all comments received and submits the consolidated national viewpoint to ISO.
Final draft optional and publication If the criteria for approval are fulfilled during the voting procedure, the draft is then published as an International Standard. If they are not fulfilled, or if the responsible working group so decides, a Final Draft is published. No comments are submitted during this voting period. Acceptance of the Final Draft requires a two-thirds majority of all active members participating, and not more than a quarter of all votes may be negative.
Ratification of an International Standard takes place following positive voting. In addition, a standard that has been developed at European level can be simultaneously adopted as an International Standard by means of parallel voting procedures in accordance with the Vienna Agreement.
Such standards are to be automatically adopted by the national standards organizations.
Ovako Q is an excellent choice for shafts and machine components. IQ-Steel is optimized for fatigue strength by a strict control of steel cleanliness. IQ-Steel, a further development of BQ-Steel, is an isotropic and ultra clean steel with properties that match re-melted steels. Based on thousands of examinations by Ovako into the effects of defects on fatigue performance, the metallurgy of IQ-Steel is purer and far more consistent than conventional grades, and designed specifically to perform well in multi axial loading. This enables the manufacturing of lighter, slimmed down components like gears, bearings and other critical parts.