CONDENSADOS DE BOSE-EINSTEIN PDF

Gobei This anisotropy of the bose-einatein on the right is a purely quantum-mechanical effect and does not exist in the thermal distribution on the left. BEC research has yielded new atomic and optical physics, such as the atom laser Ketterle demonstrated in As the density increases or the temperature decreases, the number of accessible states per particle becomes smaller, and at some point, more condesnados will be forced into a single state than the maximum allowed for that state by statistical weighting. Since then, Hau and others have completely halted and stored a light pulse within a BEC, later releasing the light unchanged or sending it to a second BEC. The Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences.

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This form of matter was predicted in by Albert Einstein on the basis of the quantum formulations of the Indian physicist Satyendra Nath Bose. Research on BECs has expanded the understanding of quantum physics and has led to the discovery of new physical effects. BEC theory traces back to , when Bose considered how groups of photons behave. The former type, called bosons , includes photons, whose spin is 1. In contrast, an unlimited number of bosons can have the same energy state and share a single quantum state.

Get exclusive access to content from our First Edition with your subscription. One of the breakthroughs depended on the novel technique of laser cooling and trapping, in which the radiation pressure of a laser beam cools and localizes atoms by slowing them down. Phillips shared the Nobel Prize for Physics. The second breakthrough depended on improvements in magnetic confinement in order to hold the atoms in place without a material container.

We can poke it and prod it and look at this stuff in a way no one has been able to before. BEC research has yielded new atomic and optical physics, such as the atom laser Ketterle demonstrated in A conventional light laser emits a beam of coherent photons; they are all exactly in phase and can be focused to an extremely small, bright spot. Similarly, an atom laser produces a coherent beam of atoms that can be focused at high intensity.

Potential applications include more-accurate atomic clocks and enhanced techniques to make electronic chips, or integrated circuits. The most intriguing property of BECs is that they can slow down light. Since then, Hau and others have completely halted and stored a light pulse within a BEC, later releasing the light unchanged or sending it to a second BEC. These manipulations hold promise for new types of light-based telecommunications , optical storage of data, and quantum computing , though the low-temperature requirements of BECs offer practical difficulties.

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