Metrics details Abstract The Paivio, Yuille, and Madigan norms for nouns were extended in two ways. The first extension involved the collecting of a much more extensive and diverse set of properties from original ratings and other sources. Factor analysis of 32 properties identified 9 orthogonal factors and demonstrated both the redundancy among various measures and the tendency for some attributes e. The second extension collected basic ratings of imagery, familiarity, and a new age of acquisition measure for a larger pool of 2, words, including parts of speech other than nouns. The analysis of these ratings and supplementary statistics computed for the words e.
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Show Context Citation Context We report F and p values from the original A constraint-based theory of abstractness was investigated according to which abstractness of entities is a function of i perceptual observability and ii characteristics of contextual constraints. Participants performed ratings of context availability, imagery, and abstractness for 36 nouns that Participants performed ratings of context availability, imagery, and abstractness for 36 nouns that varied in abstractness and familiarity.
The ratings were used to compare the predictions of abstractness ratings by context availability, dual coding theory and the constraint-based approach outlined in this paper. We found that only constraints explain variation of perceived abstractness for abstract concepts, whereas context availability and imagery are good predictors of the dichotomous distinction of concrete-abstract, and of variations of concreteness for concrete concepts only.
A second study shows that introspection-based constraints are most critical for abstractness ratings. Implications are discussed. Abstractness Every-day communication is pervaded by references to abstract entities, such as explanation, regret, and when it cannot be perceived. However, there are no clear-cut criteria for what makes entities abstract or concrete.
Several theoretical approaches exist to predicting perceived abstractness. This paper compares three theories: dual-coding theory, context-availability theory, and our approach, called the contextual constraint theory. We propose that perceived abstractness depends on two factors.
First, entities are abstract or concrete, depending on whether they are physical in nature i. Second, within these groups, abstractness varies according to more specific types of information.
Together, we call this the two-factor model of abstractness. We will start by and concrete, as proposed by the first factor.
The remainder of this paper will address the factors underlying abstractness variation within the groups of abstract versus concrete entities. The sample was divided into 6 sets of different levels of abstractness, based on the abstractness ratings from the MRC2 database. The range was divided into si Words are not just words: the social acquisition of abstract words by Anna M.
Abstract Language is usually considered as a set of arbitrary symbols that convey subjacent internal concepts. According to this traditional approach words are only words, mere external signals of internal processes.
This view allows us addr This view allows us address one of the critical problems embodied views face, the problem of how abstract words are acquired and represented. Indeed, we argue that the role of sensorimotor engagement varies depending on the considered domain. In the case of the acquisition of concrete word meanings, categories are grounded primarily in perception and action systems, and linguistic labels contribute in constraining the boundaries of grounded words are more difficult to learn because they activate a much more complex set of situations, objects, human activities and so on.
The linguistic labels help us group and assemble this variety of experiences. In addition, diversity of languages has more of an impact on abstract words as opposed to concrete word meaning.
This study examined the effects of a competing signal on sentence-word priming using an auditory lexical decision paradigm. Previous studies have suggested that the facilitatory component of the sentential priming effect is particularly sensitive to acoustic distortions that reduce the perceptibilit Previous studies have suggested that the facilitatory component of the sentential priming effect is particularly sensitive to acoustic distortions that reduce the perceptibility of the sentence context, whereas the inhibitory component is more sensitive to increased attentional demand.
Three competing signal conditions were compared: forward speech presented to a different ear, backward speech presented to a different ear, and forward speech presented to the same ear. The results demonstrate that the competing signal has different effects on priming depending upon the semantic content of the signal and its perceptual isolability from the sentence context.
This study is a first attempt to unravel the almost unexplored domain of abstract conceptual knowledge. Four kinds of abstract concepts nominal kinds, states of the self, cognitive processes, and emotion concepts were investigated in two experiments. Emotion concepts displayed a specific pattern i Altarriba et al. In Experiment 2 we highlighted the specific pattern of information taxonomic, thematic, attributive, etc these different abstract domains elicited in a definition production task.
Borghi, Claudia Scorolli , " Manipulating objects and telling words: a study on concrete
Concreteness, imagery, and meaningfulness : values for 925 nouns
Representing word meaning and order information in a composite holographic lexicon by Michael N. Jones, Douglas J. Mewhort - Psychological Review , " The authors present a computational model that builds a holographic lexicon representing both word meaning and word order from unsupervised experience with natural language. The model uses simple convolution and superposition mechanisms cf.
Extensions of the Paivio, Yuille, and Madigan (1968) norms
Concreteness, imagery, and meaningfulness values for 925 nouns.
Concreteness, imagery, and meaningfulness values for 925 nouns