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This book or any part thereof must not be reproduced in any form without the written permission of the publisher. Formed in and granted a Federal charter in , the CISC functions as a nonprofit organization promoting the efficient and economic use of fabricated steel in construction.
As a member of the Canadian Steel Construction Council, the Institute has a general interest in all uses of steel in construction. The CISC supports and actively participates in the work of the Standards Council of Canada, the Canadian Standards Association, the Canadian Commission on Building and Fire Codes and numerous other organizations, in Canada and other countries, involved in research work and the preparation of codes and standards.
Preparation of engineering plans is not a function of the CISC. The Institute does provide technical information through its professional engineering staff, through the preparation and dissemination of publications, through the medium of seminars, courses, meetings, video tapes, and computer programs.
Architects, engineers and others interested in steel construction are encouraged to make use of CISC information services. This booklet has been prepared and published by the Canadian Institute of Steel Construction. It is an important part of a continuing effort to provide current, practical, information to assist educators, designers, fabricators, and others interested in the use of steel in construction. Although no effort has been spared in an attempt to ensure that all data in this book is factual and that the numerical values are accurate to a degree consistent with current structural design practice, the Canadian Institute of Steel Construction, the author and his employer, Acres International, do not assume responsibility for errors or oversights resulting from the use of the information contained herein.
Anyone making use of the contents of this book assumes all liability arising from such use. All suggestions for improvement of this publication will receive full consideration for future printings. Future revisions to this Design Guide will be posted on this website. Users are encouraged to visit this website periodically for updates. Previous editions of these documents have not covered many loading and design issues of crane-supporting steel structures in sufficient detail.
While many references are available as given herein, they do not cover loads and load combinations for limit states design nor are they well correlated to the class of cranes being supported. This guide provides information on how to apply the current Canadian Codes and Standards to aspects of design of crane-supporting structures such as loads, load combinations, repeated loads, notional loads, monosymmetrical sections, analysis for torsion, stepped columns, and distortion induced fatigue.
The purpose of this design guide is twofold: 1. To provide the owner and the designer with a practical set of guidelines, design aids, and references that can be applied when designing or assessing the condition of crane-supporting steel structures.
To provide examples of design of key components of crane-supporting structures in accordance with: a loads and load combinations that have proven to be reliable and are generally accepted by the industry, b the recommendations contained herein, including NBCC limit states load combinations, c the provisions of the latest edition of S, and, d duty cycle analysis. The scope of this design guide includes crane-supporting steel structures regardless of the type of crane.
The interaction of the crane and its supporting structure is addressed. The design of the crane itself, including jib cranes, gantry cranes, ore bridges, and the like, is beyond the scope of this Guide and is covered by specifications such as those published by the CMAA.
Design and construction of foundations is beyond the scope of this document but loads, load combinations, tolerances and deflections should be in accordance with the recommendations contained herein. For additional information see Fisher See Table 3.
Design for fatigue is often not required for Classes A and B but is not excluded from consideration. The symbols and notations of S are followed unless otherwise noted. Welding symbols are generally in accordance with CSA W The recommendations of this guide may not cover all design measures. It is the responsibility of the designer of the crane-supporting structure to consider such measures.
Comments for future editions are welcomed. The author wishes to acknowledge the help and advice of; Acres International, for corporate support and individual assistance of colleagues too numerous to mention individually, all those who have offered suggestions, and special thanks to Gary Hodgson, Mike Gilmor and Laurie Kennedy for their encouragement and contributions.
The crane loads are considered as separate loads from the other live loads due to use and occupancy and environmental effects such as rain, snow, wind, earthquakes, lateral loads due to pressure of soil and water, and temperature effects because they are independent from them. Of all building structures, fatigue considerations are most important for those supporting cranes.
Be that as it may, designers generally design first for the ultimate limit states of strength and stability that are likely to control and then check for the fatigue and serviceability limit states. For the ultimate limit states, the factored resistance may allow yielding over portions of the cross section depending on the class of the cross-section as given in Clause 13 of S As given in Clause 26 of S, the fatigue limit state is considered at the specified load level - the load that is likely to be applied repeatedly.
The fatigue resistance depends very much on the particular detail as Clause 26 shows. However, the detail can be modified, relocated or even avoided such that fatigue does not control. Serviceability criteria such as deflections are also satisfied at the specified load level. Crane loads have many unique characteristics that lead to the following considerations: a An impact factor, applied to vertical wheel loads to account for the dynamic effects as the crane moves and for other effects such as snatching of the load from the floor and from braking of the hoist mechanism.
This guide generally follows accepted North American practice that has evolved from years of experience in the design and construction of light to moderate service and up to and including steel mill buildings that support overhead travelling cranes AISE , Fisher , Griggs and Innis , Griggs Similar practices, widely used for other types of crane services, such as underslung cranes and monorails, have served well MBMA The symbol, L, is restricted to live loads due only to use and occupancy and to dust buildup.
The symbol C means a crane load. C vs - vertical load due to a single crane C vm - vertical load due to multiple cranes C ss - side thrust due to a single crane C sm - side thrust due to multiple cranes C is - impact due to a single crane 2 C im - impact due to multiple cranes C ls - longitudinal traction due to a single crane in one aisle only C lm - longitudinal traction due to multiple cranes C bs - bumper impact due to a single crane C d - dead load of all cranes, positioned for maximum seismic effects D - dead load E - earthquake load see Part 4, NBCC H - load due to lateral pressure of soil and water in soil L - live load due to use and occupancy, including dust buildup excludes crane loads defined above S - snow load see Part 4, NBCC T - See Part 4, NBCC , but may also include forces induced by operating temperatures W - wind load see Part 4, NBCC Additional information on loads follows in Section 2.
For examples of several different types of cranes and their supporting structures, see Weaver and MBMA Lateral forces due to cranes are highly variable. The crane duty cycle may be a well-defined series of operations such as the pick up of a maximum load near one end of the bridge, traversing to the centre of the bridge while travelling along the length of the runway, releasing most of the load and travelling back for another load.
This is sometimes the case in steel mills and foundries. On the other hand, the operation may be random as in warehousing operations. Weaver provides examples of duty cycle analyses albeit more appropriate for crane selection than for the supporting structure. Crane supporting structures are not usually designed for a specific routine but use recommended factors for crane loading as shown in Table 2.
Other jurisdictions, e. In addition to these, load factors for the ultimate limit states as given in Section 2. A statistically significant number of field observations are needed to refine these factors.
AISE notes that some of the recommended crane runway loadings may be somewhat conservative. This is deemed appropriate for new mill type building design where the cost of conservatism should be relatively low. However when assessing existing structures as covered in Chapter 6 engineering judgment should be applied judiciously as renovation costs are generally higher. Impact is factored as a live load. For most applications, this is thought to be a conservative approach.
Following Rowswell and Millman impact is not included in design for fatigue. For certain applications such as lifting of hydraulic gates, the lifted load can jamb and without load limiting devices, the line pull can approach the stalling torque of the motor, which may be two to three times the nominal crane lifting capacity.
This possibility should be made known to the designer of the structure.
Crane-Supporting Steel Structures: Design Guide (Third Edition)