API 2510A PDF

With respect to partic-ular circumstances, local, state, and federal laws and regulations should be reviewed. API is not undertaking to meet the duties of employers, manufacturers, or suppliers towarn and properly train and equip their employees, and others exposed, concerning healthand safety risks and precautions, nor undertaking their obligations under local, state, orfederal laws. Information concerning safety and health risks and proper precautions with respect to par-ticular materials and conditions should be obtained from the employer, the manufacturer orsupplier of that material, or the material safety data sheet. Nothing contained in any API publication is to be construed as granting any right, byimplication or otherwise, for the manufacture, sale, or use of any method, apparatus, or prod-uct covered by letters patent. Neither should anything contained in the publication be con-strued as insuring anyone against liability for infringement of letters patent.

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With respect to partic-ular circumstances, local, state, and federal laws and regulations should be reviewed. API is not undertaking to meet the duties of employers, manufacturers, or suppliers towarn and properly train and equip their employees, and others exposed, concerning healthand safety risks and precautions, nor undertaking their obligations under local, state, orfederal laws.

Information concerning safety and health risks and proper precautions with respect to par-ticular materials and conditions should be obtained from the employer, the manufacturer orsupplier of that material, or the material safety data sheet.

Nothing contained in any API publication is to be construed as granting any right, byimplication or otherwise, for the manufacture, sale, or use of any method, apparatus, or prod-uct covered by letters patent. Neither should anything contained in the publication be con-strued as insuring anyone against liability for infringement of letters patent.

Sometimes a one-time extension of up to two years will be added to this reviewcycle. Statusof the publication can be ascertained from the API Authoring Department [telephone ]. Questions concerning the interpretation of the content of this standard or com-ments and questions concerning the procedures under which this standard was developedshould be directed in writing to the director of the Authoring Department shown on the titlepage of this document , American Petroleum Institute, L Street, N.

API standards are published to facilitate the broad availability of proven, soundengineering and operating practices. These standards are not intended to obviate the need forapplying sound engineering judgment regarding when and where these standards should beutilized. The formulation and publication of API standards is not intended in any way toinhibit anyone from using any other practices.

Any manufacturer marking equipment or materials in conformance with the markingrequirements of an API standard is solely responsible for complying with all the applicablerequirements of that standard. API does not represent, warrant, or guarantee that such prod-ucts do in fact conform to the applicable API standard.

All rights reserved. No part of this work may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise, without prior written permission from the publisher.

This publication is not intended to take precedence over contractual agreements. Exist-ing codes and manuals, wherever practicable, have been used in the preparation of thispublication. API publications may be used by anyone desiring to do so. This publication, since it supple-ments API Standard and provides the basis for many ofthe requirements stated in that standard, must be used in con-junction with API Standard Alternate designs are acceptableprovided equal safety can be demonstrated.

The following types of LPG installa-tions are not addressed:a. Underground storage, such as buried tanks, storage cav-erns, salt domes, or wells.

Mounded storage tanks. Refrigerated storage at pressures below 15 pounds persquare inch gauge. Installations covered by API Standard Department of Transportation DOT containers.

Small installations with a single LPG tank of less thangallon capacity. The applicability of some or all of theseprovisions to facilities and equipment already in place or in theprocess of construction or installation before the date of thispublication will have to be considered on a case-by-case basis.

The probability of thistype of failure can be made virtually negligible with properlyengineered and operated facilities. To assume this fail-ure rate for hydrocarbon storage vessels is conservative, sincemost of the data in these studies are for steam boilers anddrums operating under more adverse conditions. Injury tofacility or neighboring personnel and damage losses ofseveral million dollars can be incurred in these types ofLPG incidents.

The number of such facilitiesin operation during the year period examined was between and Hence, the probability that any one facilitywill have a major LPG accident in any one year is from lessthan 1 in to less than 1 in Since a typical facilityis likely to contain several vessels, the frequency of a majoraccident at any one facility is probably on the order of 1 per20, vessel years.

A consideration of the nine major LPGstorage facility incidents studied suggests that many if notmost of the incidents would probably not have occurred orwould have been much less severe if the practices describedin this publication had been observed. Leakage from an LPG transfer pump seal. Leakage when taking a sample or drawing water. Leakage from transfer piping because of corrosion,mechanical damage, or from screwed piping connections.

Leakage from a storage vessel because of corrosion. An evaluation should be made to establishthe value of the facility, the economic impact if it were lost,and the exposure risk to people and neighboring installations.

It is this property that per-mits LPG to be transported and stored in a liquid form butused in the vapor form. Examples include propane, propy-lene, butane normal or isobutane , and butylene includingisomers. The properties of propane andnormal butane are shown in Tables 1 and 2. The vapor cloud from a leak tends to stay close to theground and drift downwind toward low areas. This propertymakes it essential that leaks be prevented, ignition sourceskept at a safe distance, and vapor from leaks be dispersedbefore it is ignited.

Recognition of safety requirements in plant layout and equipment spacing is essential in the early design of new facilities and has a direct impact on both the risk and the potential magnitude of loss Typical considerations are listed in 3.

LA CARTERA DE ACCIONES DE WARREN BUFFETT PDF

API 2510: Design and Construction of LPG Installations

The need for cryogenic design on piping is quite interesting and logical. There are a group of spherical tanks each in the size of Ton LPG. Interim Chemical Accident Prevention Advisory. This is a farm of containers that located inside the refinery premises, and used to store the final product before delivery to road tracks. Digital Transformation may be defined in a number of different ways by analysts or enterprise software vendors. Click Here to join Eng-Tips and talk with other members!

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API 936 - Refractory Personnel

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