AN INTRODUCTION TO METAMORPHIC PETROLOGY BY BRUCE YARDLEY PDF

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Thermodynamics Notes Part This small change in stress causes a change in Gibbs free energy that can drive dissolution of minerals typically in response to compression and their reprecipitation in veins or along grain boundaries typically in response to tension : Stylolites are subplanar, wavy features developed where insoluble residues remain behind when the soluble material has been carried away by grain-boundary diffusion: View formation of a stylolite Veins are subplanar concentrations of minerals that have precipitated from solution.

They form when a solution is saturated with respect to a particular dissolved mineral. In quartz, for example, the solubility of silica in aqueous H2O-rich solutions decreases dramatically with decreasing temperature, such that quartz dissolves into fluid at high temperature, but then precipitates as the solution cools and becomes supersaturated: An array of veins in sandstone Costa Rica : Another array of en-echelon veins in China: A larger vein in outcrop: View cracking and void formation during brittle-ductile deformation A special kind of vein called a crack-seal vein forms by repeated cracking along the vein edge, which leads to a line of wall fragments: An antitaxial vein: View formation of a vein during deformation A vein with large quartz candles: View growth of quartz candles into a vug or vein Fibres that grow inside fault planes provide important information about sense of fault motion.

This is a normal fault: Strain shadows are a kind of grain-scale vein that forms from dissolution of material elsewhere and reprecipitation in the dilatational side of a porphyroclast or other hard grain. Strain caps form on the opposing sides of the porphyroclast where material has dissolved. Strain shadows in a metagabbro in the Sierra Nevada: Sense of shear determination from metamorphic rocks So-called composite foliations can be used to determine sense of shear.

This greenschist-facies rock from Norway shows sinistral left-lateral sense of shear: This amphibolite-facies gneiss from China shows dextral left-lateral sense of shear: Asymmetric boudinage of foliation can also be used to determine sense of shear, and, in some rocks, important information about the P-T-deformation history can be learned from the minerals in the boudin necks: Dislocation Creep At low temperature, most rocks deform by cracking and frictional sliding.

At high temperature, however, ductile deformation such as seen in these rocks north of Annapurna is accomplished by a range of thermally activated processes. Dislocation or line defect: a line in a crystal where there is a lattice mismatch recall from our diffusion discussion that diffusion occurs via the motion of point defects.

Dislocations can form during growth, but are chiefly formed by deformation. Here are two transmission-electron images of dislocations: Dislocation glide: crystal deformation by the motion of dislocations in a specific slip direction within a specific glide plane. Together the slip direction and glide plane define a unique slip system. Dislocation glide results in undulatory extinction which is nothing more than a bent crystal lattice and lattice preferred orientation.

Five independent slip systems are required for a grain to undergo an arbitrary imposed deformation this is called the von Mises criterion. Undulatory extinction can be the result of dislocation glide or cracking.

View the formation of undulatory extinction. The most extreme texture that results from dislocation glide is the formation of ribbon grains typically in quartz and enstatite. Twins are produced by the motion of special dislocations that have split in two: As dislocation glide proceeds, the dislocations tend to run into each other, forming tangles, and pile up in front of obstacles.

This impedes further dislocation generation, makes the grain harder to deform, and adds strain free energy to the grain. This process is called work hardening. If deformation of the grain is going to continue, some process must remove the tangled and piled up dislocations.

Recovery from this state can occur via two processes: grain-boundary recrystallization, and subgrain-rotation recrystallization. In grain-boundary migration, the strain free energy of deformed grains becomes so high that a grain boundary sweeps through the deformed grain, producing a new strain-free grain. Then the process of dislocation glide can start over again. Here is an optical microscope image crossed polarized light of subgrains in quartz: View the formation of subgrains by grain-boundary migration The hallmark microstructures of grain-boundary recrystallization are sutured grain boundaries.

In subgrain-rotation recrystallization the temperature is high enough the dislocations can climb out of their glide plane to bypass obstacles or climb into dislocations of opposite sign and annihilate. Dislocation climb: is the movement of dislocations in directions not within their glide plane via diffusion.

This allows the arbitrary movement of dislocations over obstacles, into other dislocations, and into lower energy configurations. View the formation of subgrains by rotation recrystallization View one movie and a second movie of dynamic recrystallization A specific stress on a grain produces a specific density of dislocations.

This increase in dislocation density leads to a decrease in grain size and recrystallized grain size , such that recrystallized grain size can be used as a paleo stress gauge or paleopiezometer. The hallmark microstructures of subgrain-rotation recrystallization are core-mantle textures, where a host porphyroclast is surrounded by new, smaller subgrains.

If many grains in a rock undergo the same rotation, a lattice preferred orientation LPO develops. In thin section, an LPO is often visible as large areas of similar birefringence: The strength of a preferred orientation depends on the magnitude of strain, although it may reach a maximum at quite low strains. The strength of an LPOs can thus be used as a qualitative guide to strain magnitude.

The shape of the LPO that develops depends on the slip systems that are operating. Specific LPOs can thus be used as a guide to deformation temperature. The symmetry of the LPO that develops depends on whether the deformation history is coaxial or noncoaxial.

LPOs that are symmetrical with respect to the foliation and lineation develop from coaxial deformation histories, and those that are asymmetrical develop from noncoaxial deformation histories. For example, the deformation of quartzites in the Dabie Shan of China is interpreted as coaxial deformation by basal glide left , non-coaxial deformation by basal glide center , and coaxial deformation by prism slip right :.

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An Introduction to Metamorphic Petrology

Thermodynamics Notes Part This small change in stress causes a change in Gibbs free energy that can drive dissolution of minerals typically in response to compression and their reprecipitation in veins or along grain boundaries typically in response to tension : Stylolites are subplanar, wavy features developed where insoluble residues remain behind when the soluble material has been carried away by grain-boundary diffusion: View formation of a stylolite Veins are subplanar concentrations of minerals that have precipitated from solution. They form when a solution is saturated with respect to a particular dissolved mineral. In quartz, for example, the solubility of silica in aqueous H2O-rich solutions decreases dramatically with decreasing temperature, such that quartz dissolves into fluid at high temperature, but then precipitates as the solution cools and becomes supersaturated: An array of veins in sandstone Costa Rica : Another array of en-echelon veins in China: A larger vein in outcrop: View cracking and void formation during brittle-ductile deformation A special kind of vein called a crack-seal vein forms by repeated cracking along the vein edge, which leads to a line of wall fragments: An antitaxial vein: View formation of a vein during deformation A vein with large quartz candles: View growth of quartz candles into a vug or vein Fibres that grow inside fault planes provide important information about sense of fault motion.

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An Introduction to Metamorphic Petrology by Bruce W. Yardley (1996, Paperback)

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