Most species are non-hemolytic on blood agar, however colonies of Actinobacillus suis on sheep blood agar is always surrounded by a clearly marked zone of hemolysis. Colonies of this genus are non-pigmented. Surface cultures have a low viability and die in 5 to 7 days. All species are positive for urease. All species except Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans grow on MacConkey Agar. All species except Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans are oxidase-positive.
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Moustacas,1 Teane M. Silva,1 Luciana F. Santos,1 and Tatiane A. Powell Received26 Aug Published27 Jan Abstract Infectious epididymitis is considered a major cause of economic losses for the sheep industry worldwide.
This study aimed to investigate clinical and pathological changes associated with experimental infections with A. Twenty rams of age 18 to 24 months were infected by intraepididymal inoculation of A. Rams were weekly examined and biological samples were collected during six weeks. All rams inoculated with A. The recovery of bacteria was possible in semen and urine samples and tissues in both experimental groups. Clinically, there were a decrease in testicular consistency and an increase in measures of the left epididymis tails in both experimental groups.
The main gross changes were observed in the reproductive tract. Microscopically, the main lesions were inflammatory changes in the genitourinary tract and testicular degeneration. For differential diagnosis, it is important to use diagnostic techniques for direct confirmation of the etiologic agent. Introduction Ovine infectious epididymitis is one of the major causes of reproductive disorders in sheep, and it strongly impacts on the productivity of the herds [ 1 ].
The losses are due to lower fertility rate, reduction in the number of birth, and early culling of breeders [ 2 , 3 ]. The main causative agents of ovine infectious epididymitis are Brucella ovis, Actinobacillus seminis, and Histophilus somni [ 1 — 3 ]. Ovine brucellosis caused by B. This disease has been reported in all major sheep producing regions in the world, including Brazil. However, while many studies have been performed in reference to H.
In most chronic cases, testicular consistency tends to increase, reflecting the atrophy and fibrosis, independent of involved etiologic agent [ 3 , 13 ]. Several previous studies evaluated the pathological changes in rams experimentally infected with B.
In contrast, there are only a few studies about lesions caused by A. Thus, considering the importance of ovine infectious epididymitis and the lack of studies relating to infections with A. All rams were confirmed as free of infectious epididymitis by B. The rams were divided into two groups of 10 animals each and the experiments were carried out in Belo Horizonte, Brazil They were fed hay and commercial ration throughout the experiment. Both groups underwent two months of adaptation and training for semen collection using an artificial vagina.
For semen sampling, a crossbred ewe had estrus induced with 2 mg of estradiol cypionate ECP-Pfizer Animal health, Brazil intramuscularly 48 hours before semen sampling. This protocol was repeated whenever necessary. After the adaptation phase, the first group of 10 rams was inoculated with 1 mL of suspension containing approximately 2. The second group of 10 rams was inoculated with 1 mL of suspension containing approximately 1. Experimental infections were conducted consecutively and the experimental groups never had contact.
The place was decontaminated with broom fire and utensils used to feed, handle, or collect biological samples of the animals were decontaminated by sterilization or with hypochlorite solution prior to use in other group.
Biological samples obtained from both experimental infections were used to diagnosis proceedings [ 18 ]. The rams were evaluated once prior to inoculation and every seven days of postinoculation dpi , during six weeks, totaling seven evaluations by the experimental group. Clinically, scrotal circumference was measured in the testicular region of larger diameter with a measuring tape. The testicular consistency was assessed by palpation and assigned score of 1 very flaccid and inelastic to 5 hardened.
The length and width of the tail of epididymis were measured with caliper. The length was measured in dorsoventral and width in craniocaudal direction.
All clinical evaluations were carried out by the same examiner. To confirm the infection, semen, urine, and blood were obtained prior to inoculation and every seven dpi, during six weeks. To avoid cross-contamination between semen samples from different rams in each group, we used a sterile, disposable plastic inside the artificial vagina, connected directly to collection tube. Rams that did not show libido at some point of the trial period were subjected to electroejaculation [ 13 ].
Whole blood was collected by jugular vein puncture with vacuum collection system. Urine collection was performed by blocking the breath for 30 seconds. After six weeks of infection, the animals underwent euthanasia after sedation with xylazine 2 mg Copazine-Schering-Plough Coopers, Brazil followed by electrocution. For the determination of tissue distribution of agents, fragments of tail, body and head of the epididymes, testicles, ampullae of the vas deferens, seminal vesicles, bulbourethral glands, kidneys, bladder, inguinal and iliac lymph nodes, spleen, and liver were collected.
For microbiological analysis, tissue samples were placed in 50 mL tube containing 2 mL of sterile PBS and macerated with a homogenizer. For A. Histopathological evaluation was performed after tissue processing by the routine paraffin embedding and staining with hematoxylin and eosin HE.
Inflammatory changes were scored as follows: 0 absent , 1 mild , 2 moderate , and 3 severe. Polyclonal serum anti-A. Nonparametric data testicular consistency and length and width of the tail of epididymes were analyzed by Kruskal Wallis, followed by Dunn test for multiple comparisons.
The frequencies of positive samples for A. Differences were considered statistically different when. The analyses were performed with the GraphPad InStat program, version 3. InStat, USA. Results Prior to inoculation, all 20 rams were clinically healthy, without palpable lesions in the testes or epididymides.
Additionally, all rams were negative for infections with B. Throughout the experimental period, there was no change of scrotal circumference in both experimental groups Figure 1 a.
However, the testicular consistency was decreased at 35 dpi, remaining decreased for the rest of the experimental period, in rams infected with A. Measurements of the right tail of the epididymides remained unchanged throughout the course of the experimental infections Figure 2. However, the measurements of the left tail of the epididymides i. Rams infected with A. The width remained increased up to 21 dpi, returning to the original values to 28 dpi Figure 2 b. The length and width of the left epididymides tails of rams H.
Abstract Background Infectious ovine epididymitis results in substantial economic losses worldwide due to reproductive failure and culling of breeders. The most common causative agents of these infections are Brucella ovis, Actinobacillus seminis, and Histophilus somni. The aim of this study was to develop a multiplex PCR assay for simultaneous detection of Brucella ovis, Actinobacillus seminis, and Histophilus somni with species-specific primers applied to biological samples for molecular diagnosis of these infections. Results The multiplex assay was capable of detecting B. The method was highly specific since it did not amplify DNA from other bacterial species that can potentially cause epididymitis in rams as well as species phylogenetically related to B. All negative control samples were negative in PCR multiplex assay.
Definition Noun A gram-negative bacterium inhabits in the genital tracts that leads to an ovine epididymitis and orchitis. Supplement Actinobacillus seminis has a mode of infections that ascend from the preputial cavity which in turn colonizes the genital tract causing infections, thus stress induced hormone changes and nutritional deficiencies caused the development of orchitis and epididymitis particularly in young sheep. Actinobacillus seminis is frequently isolated from the lesions that produces clinical signs and reproductive discrepancies in ram wherein transmission implicit through direct contact between mucous membrane from all orifices during pre-mating period owing to boost up homosexual activity in which ewe considered as the intermediate carriers upholding ewe to lamb transmission. Actinobacillus seminis is implicated in the epididymitis of sheep which lead to economic loses as it reduces and interferes with the fertility of infected ram. It also affect goats manifested with clinical signs of unilateral orchitis and epididymitis leading to infertility.
Moustacas,1 Teane M. Silva,1 Luciana F. Santos,1 and Tatiane A. Powell Received26 Aug Published27 Jan Abstract Infectious epididymitis is considered a major cause of economic losses for the sheep industry worldwide. This study aimed to investigate clinical and pathological changes associated with experimental infections with A. Twenty rams of age 18 to 24 months were infected by intraepididymal inoculation of A.