DESALTING OF CRUDE OIL PDF

LinkedIn Purpose of crude oil desalting Crude oil introduced to refinery processing contains many undesirable impurities, such as sand, inorganic salts , drilling mud, polymer, corrosion byproduct, etc. The purpose of crude oil desalting is to remove these undesirable impurities, especially salts and water, from the crude oil prior to distillation. The salt content in the crude oil varies depending on source of the crude oil. When a mixture from many crude oil sources is processed in refinery , the salt content can vary greatly.

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Previous Next Crude Oil Pretreatment Desalting Crude oil often contains water, inorganic salts, suspended solids, and water-soluble trace metals. As a first step in the refining process , to reduce corrosion, plugging, and fouling of equipment and to prevent poisoning the catalysts in processing units, these contaminants must be removed by desalting dehydration.

The two most typical methods of crude-oil desalting, chemical and electrostatic separation, use hot water as the extraction agent. In chemical desalting, water and chemical surfactant demulsifiers are added to the crude, heated so that salts and other impurities dissolve into the water or attach to the water, and then held in a tank where they settle out.

Electrical desalting is the application of high-voltage electrostatic charges to concentrate suspended water globules in the bottom of the settling tank. Surfactants are added only when the crude has a large amount of suspended solids.

Both methods of desalting are continuous. A third and less-common process involves filtering heated crude using diatomaceous earth. The temperature is limited by the vapor pressure of the crude-oil feedstock. In both methods other chemicals may be added. Ammonia is often used to reduce corrosion. Caustic or acid may be added to adjust the pH of the water wash. Wastewater and contaminants are discharged from the bottom of the settling tank to the wastewater treatment facility.

The desalted crude is continuously drawn from the top of the settling tanks and sent to the crude distillation fractionating tower.

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Desalting of crude oil in refinery

Previous Next Crude Oil Pretreatment Desalting Crude oil often contains water, inorganic salts, suspended solids, and water-soluble trace metals. As a first step in the refining process , to reduce corrosion, plugging, and fouling of equipment and to prevent poisoning the catalysts in processing units, these contaminants must be removed by desalting dehydration. The two most typical methods of crude-oil desalting, chemical and electrostatic separation, use hot water as the extraction agent. In chemical desalting, water and chemical surfactant demulsifiers are added to the crude, heated so that salts and other impurities dissolve into the water or attach to the water, and then held in a tank where they settle out. Electrical desalting is the application of high-voltage electrostatic charges to concentrate suspended water globules in the bottom of the settling tank.

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Crude Oil Pretreatment (Desalting)

Understanding the Process of Crude Oil Desalting March 15, Blog 0 Comments Crude oil contains many contaminants, such as inorganic salts, sand, drilling mud, suspended solids, polymer, corrosion byproducts, and more. These contaminants need to be removed to refine the oil into a finished product. The process is called separation. Desalting is a part of the refining process, in which, salts and water are removed from the crude oil prior to distillation. Some of the reasons why crude oil desalting is necessary are: It increases crude throughput There is less scaling, plugging, coking of the heat exchanger and furnace tubes Corrosion in the exchanger, fractionators, pipelines, etc is minimal Less erosion by solids in the exchanger, control valves, furnace, pumps How crude oil is desalted Crude oil containing sediments and produced salty water is passed through the cold preheat train and then pumped to the desalters electrostatic coalescers by crude charge pumps. The recycled water or wash water from the desalters is then injected in the crude oil line and the formed fluid enters the static mixer.

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Crude Oil Desalting Process

Salt and water content specifications are even more rigid because of their negative effect in downstream processes due to corrosion, and catalyst deactivation. An optimum formulation concept is presented to describe emulsion breaking in desalting process. In the stabilization mechanism is accepted that water droplets are stabilized by the formation of a mechanically strong and viscoelastic film at the interface composed of asphaltenes. In the case of water-in-crude-oil emulsions, a balanced optimum formulation is attained by adding to the lipophilic natural surfactants contained in the crude oil, demulsifiers which are hydrophilic. The aim is to relate the nature and concentration of the added demulsifier products to the amphiphilic mixture at the interface.

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Understanding the Process of Crude Oil Desalting

For higher salt removal percentages, a two-step configuration, shown in Figure 1 b , should be required. As far as the last process configuration is concerned two demulsifier injection points are used, both before the mixing valve in the first and second step. In addition, freshwater is fed to the second stage, and effluent water from this stage is recycled to the first one. Crude oil emulsions Emulsions are present in the main operations of the petroleum industry. Film at the oil—water interface is highly viscous and is formed by asphaltenes, resins, waxes, and small solid particles [ 5 , 6 ]. In the study of water-in-oil emulsions, it is important to know the structure and properties of the crude oil components, their tendency to associate and accumulate at the interface, as well as solubility and sensitivity to pressure and temperature changes.

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