History[ edit ] The odour of agarwood is complex and pleasing,  with few or no similar natural analogues. In the perfume state, the scent is mainly distinguished by a combination of "oriental-woody" and "very soft fruity-floral" notes. The incense smoke is also characterized by a "sweet-balsamic" note and "shades of vanilla and musk" and amber not to be confused with ambergris. In the Hebrew Bible , "trees of lign aloes" are mentioned in The Book of Numbers  and a perfume compounded of aloeswood, myrrh , and cassia is described in Psalms Even though Dioscorides describes agarwood as having an astringent and bitter taste, it was used to freshen the breath when chewed or as a decoction held in the mouth.
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History[ edit ] The odour of agarwood is complex and pleasing,  with few or no similar natural analogues. In the perfume state, the scent is mainly distinguished by a combination of "oriental-woody" and "very soft fruity-floral" notes.
The incense smoke is also characterized by a "sweet-balsamic" note and "shades of vanilla and musk" and amber not to be confused with ambergris. In the Hebrew Bible , "trees of lign aloes" are mentioned in The Book of Numbers  and a perfume compounded of aloeswood, myrrh , and cassia is described in Psalms Even though Dioscorides describes agarwood as having an astringent and bitter taste, it was used to freshen the breath when chewed or as a decoction held in the mouth.
He also writes that a root extract was used to treat stomach complaints and dysentery as well as pains of the lungs and liver. Antique agarwood rosary with inlaid gold, late Qing dynasty, China.
Adilnor Collection, Sweden. During the sixth century CE in Japan, in the recordings of the Nihon Shoki The Chronicles of Japan the second oldest book of classical Japanese history, mention is made of a large piece of fragrant wood identified as agarwood. The source for this piece of wood is claimed to be from Pursat, Cambodia based on the smell of the wood. The famous piece of wood still remains in Japan today and is showcased less than 10 times per century at the Nara National Museum.
Agarwood is highly revered in Islam. The tradition of making writing materials from its bark still exists in Assam. Etymology[ edit ] Aquilaria tree showing darker agarwood. Poachers had scraped off the bark to allow the tree to become infected by the ascomycetous mould.
Agarwood is known under many names in different cultures: Another name is Lignum aloes or Aloeswood, unrelated to the familiar genus, Aloe. Also from aghil, via Hebrew and Greek.
In Cambodia , it is called "chann crassna". In Hindi , it is known as agar, which is derived originally from the Sanskrit aguru.
In Telugu and Kannada , it is known by the same Sanskrit name as Aguru. Formation[ edit ] There are seventeen species in the genus Aquilaria , large evergreens native to southeast Asia , and nine are known to produce agar wood.
The gyrinops tree can also produce agarwood. A mold infection may then occur, and in response, the tree produces a salutary self-defense material to conceal damages or infections. While the unaffected wood of the tree is relatively light in color, the resin dramatically increases the mass and density of the affected wood, changing its color from a pale beige to yellow, orange, red, dark brown or black. A common method in artificial forestry is to inoculate trees with the fungus. Other common classes of compounds include agarofurans , cadinanes , eudesmanes , valencanes and eremophilanes , guaianes , prezizanes , vetispiranes , simple volatile aromatic compounds as well as a range of miscellaneous compounds.
Sri Lankan "agarwood" is known as Walla Patta and is of the Gyrinops walla species. Conservation of agarwood-producing species[ edit ] Overharvesting and habitat loss threatens some populations of agarwood-producing species.
Concern over the impact of the global demand for agarwood has thus led to the inclusion of the main taxa on CITES Appendix II, which requires that international trade in agarwood be monitored. CITES also provides that international trade in agarwood be subject to controls designed to ensure that harvest and exports are not to the detriment of the survival of the species in the wild. In addition, agarwood plantations have been established in a number of countries, and reintroduced into countries such as Malaysia and Sri Lanka as commercial plantation crops.
The success of these plantations depends on the stimulation of agarwood production in the trees. Numerous inoculation techniques have been developed, with varying degrees of success.
Do you know all the different Species of Agarwood trees?
Agarwood is found in natural habitat in Forest ecosystems. This tree of very high economic value is now been set up as plantations to satisfy our requirements. We, by using inculation techniques on the right varieties of agarwood, produce best quality agarwood products to serve you. We use different species of Aquilaria trees in our plantations.
Metrics details Abstract Fungal endophytes are microorganisms that are well-known for producing a diverse array of secondary metabolites. Recent studies have uncovered the bioprospecting potential of several plant endophytic fungi. Here, we demonstrate the presence of highly bioactive fungal endophytic species in Aquilaria subintegra, a fragrant wood plant collected from Thailand. Thirty-three fungal endophytic strains were isolated and further identified to genus level based on morphological characteristics.
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Type of Gaharu based on ranking. Quis: Phillipines A. VU A1d A. Hall f.